IP is the acronym for Internet Protocol. An IP address is an identification number that is assigned permanently or temporarily to each device connected to a network using this Internet Protocol. The IP address is the basis of the routing system of data packets on the Internet.
There are 2 versions of IP adresses: 32-bit version 4 (commonly known as IPv4), and 128-bit version 6 (commonly known as IPv6) IP addresses. The IPv4 version is currently the most widely used: it is usually written in decimal notation with four numbers between 0 and 255, separated by points.
The IP address is assigned to each interface through the network of any computer equipment (computer, tablet, smartphone, router, ADSL modem or cable modem, network printer, connected device, etc.) connected to a network using the Internet Protocol as a communication protocol between its nodes.
An IP address is public when it is registered and routable on the Internet, so it is unique worldwide. However, a local IP address is private when it is used in a local network not connected to the Internet, and it can only be unique in this network.